MONTESSORIMontessori education is internationally accepted education scheme with a long tradition. It is most popular in EU states (Italy, Netherlands, UK, Sweden, Switzerland, Germany) and in USA – in both kindergartens and high schools. Montessori education system is conceptually different from the traditional educational system and contains a unique approach to children and their needs.
Maria Tecla Artemesia Montessori (1870 – 1952) was an Italian physician and educator, a noted humanitarian and devout Roman Catholic best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name, and her writing on scientific pedagogy. Her educational method is in use today in public and private schools throughout the world.
Three objects overlapping in Montessori education:
Maria Montessori emphasized that the CHILD must develop a full personality along with reason. Based on the development characteristics of a child, the EDUCATOR prepares a preparative ENVIRONMENT and thus ensures the child a wholesome and healthy and development.
A child characteristic that was named by Maria Montessori is POLARISATION. Polarisation is a process achieved by children through attentive and concentrated work until they are satisfied internally. Work stimulates them towards independence and aids them in developing their character. After the task is complete, the children are satisfied, calm, happy…NORMALISED, as pointed out by Maria Montessori.
A MIND THAT SOAKS – Maria Montessori stated that a child is able to soak the surroundings like a mushroom, hence the allegory. A child will soak the surroundings and the soaking mind is a not a self conscious spiritual state. It is lead by childrens sensitive period (childs inner sensitivity).
SENSITIVE PERIOD - this is the period when a child is especially sensitive for developing certain skills (reading, writing). At this time a child may develop these abilities with ease, later on, this ability disappears. The educator’s’ task is to recognise this period and to prepare a suitable environment for the child.
The task of the educator is to carefully PREPARE THE ENVIRONMENT, guide activity and to encourage the child. In the end it is the child who learns and with the aid of materials persists in a certain activity.
The educator ENCOURAGES FREEDOM, RESPECT AND RESPONSIBILITY in the environment.
Once concentration prevails in class, the educator is careful not to interfere. He aids the child to operate and to use his own sense and will. The educator respects the child’s work (game) and does not disturb the child (in contemporary life a childs game is stopped and truncated too often, which causes behaviour and learning difficulties).
The educator is aware that when he SERVES THE CHILD, her serves life.
The children have at disposal preparative materials used in everyday life in areas such as language, maths, science, art, music and perception.
Materials are complete, clean, perfective and placed on shelves, where they are permanently placed at childrens reach. This encourages the child to put the materials back on place. This is a way of assuring ORDER.
During the day, the children have various materials at their disposal. This means, that they FREELY choose their activities.
Another characteristic of the preparative environment is the REAL WORLD and the BEAUTY of the surroundings.
All materials are prepared aesthetically, are coordinated in colour, perfective and well considered. The materials are not duplicated and this enables the children SOCIAL INTERACTION, learning to cooperate and to agree. The children frequently wish to work with material which is being used by their friends. This enables them to become tolerant, learn to wait, learn to understand and learn to become patient.